作为本届美国政府亚洲政策的代名词,“印太战略”过去两三年来广受关注。但围绕“印太”的覆盖范围及相关“战略”如何实施等细节,美国和印太其他国家始终没有达成一致。在上月的“印度洋对话”论坛上,印度外长苏杰生指出“印太”是一个开放、自由和包容的合作平台,地理范围包括西印度洋和阿拉伯海地区。这个阐述与美国版“印太战略”明显不在一个频道。

As a byword for the current US administration's Asia policy, the Indian-Pacific strategy has received much attention over the past two or three years. But the United States and the rest of the Indo-Pacific have not agreed on such details as the coverage and how the strategy will be implemented. At last month's \"Indian Ocean Dialogue\" forum, Indian Foreign Minister Su-Jesson pointed out that \"Indo-Pacific\" is an open, free and inclusive platform for cooperation, with geographical coverage of the Western Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea. This exposition is clearly not on the same channel as the american version of the indian strategy.

“印太”作为一个国际政治概念已出现十多年,但在美国提出“印太战略”后才成为国际热点。客观而言,印太区域引起关注反映了印度及印度洋战略地位的提升。

As an international political concept, Indo-Pacific has emerged for more than a decade, but it has become an international hot spot only after the United States put forward the Indian-Pacific strategy. Objectively, concerns in the Indo-Pacific region reflect a rise in the strategic position of India and the Indian Ocean.

印度早在上世纪90年代中期就提出“东向政策”,2014年又升级为“东向行动政策”,目的是与繁荣的东亚加强经济合作。同时,中国、日本和韩国等东亚国家与印度及印度洋沿岸的海湾地区和非洲地区经贸规模不断扩大,非洲和海湾成为东亚重要的能源、原材料来源地和商品市场,东亚与非洲、欧洲90%的贸易要通过印度洋。

India's \"East Policy \"as early as the mid-1990s and upgraded to \"East Action Policy \"in 2014 aimed at strengthening economic cooperation with prosperous East Asia. At the same time, East Asian countries such as China, Japan and South Korea are expanding their economies and trade with India and the Gulf and African regions along the Indian Ocean. Africa and the Gulf have become important sources of energy, raw materials and commodity markets in East Asia.

美国政府2017年底正式提出“印太战略”,但其定义的地理范围是“印度西海岸到美国西海岸地区”,并不包括印度洋北部阿拉伯海沿岸的海湾国家和印度洋西岸的非洲地区。美国版“印太战略”只需要印度而不是整个印度洋及沿岸地区,也不是要用来加强与印度洋沿岸国家的经济合作,根本目的在于拉拢印度应对崛起的中国。美国特别想组建以美日澳印四方合作为“轴心”的军事同盟。也就是说,美国的“印太战略”服务于美国利益,根本没有真正考虑印度等印太地区国家的利益。

The U.S. government formally proposed a \"Indo-Pacific strategy\" at the end of 2017, but its definition is a geographical range of \"India's West Coast to the U.S. West Coast area,\" and does not include the Gulf States on the Arabian Sea coast of the northern Indian Ocean and the African region on the West Bank of the Indian Ocean. The US version of the Indo-Pacific strategy requires only India, not the entire Indian Ocean and its coastal regions, nor is it intended to strengthen economic cooperation with the Indian Ocean's littoral states, essentially to woo India in response to rising China. The United States particularly wants to form a military alliance with the four-party cooperation between the United States, Japan, Australia and India as the \"axis \". In other words, America's \"Indo-Pacific strategy\" serves the interests of the United States and does not really consider the interests of India and other Indo-Pacific countries.

现在看来,印度显然是忠实于自身利益和意图来塑造“印太”。作为一个有不结盟外交传统的国家,现在又是一个强调“战略自主”的大国,印度如果只是追随美国版“印太战略”,不仅损害自己的大国追求,还可能冒恶化中印关系的风险。相反,印度选择提出自己版本的“印太政策”,通过“东向行动”加强与东亚的合作,向西加强与海湾和非洲地区的合作,凸显印度作为“印太”中心的地位。这样不但可以增进与印太其他国家的经济文化关系,还可提升印度的国际地位,使自己成为亚太区域事务的重要参与者和印度洋地区的主导力量。

必须指出,任何“战略”或“计划”都需投入相应资源才能取得进展,否则就只是一个概念性存在。鉴于印度近些年提出多个国际和区域合作计划,比如“季风计划”“香料之路”等,但都没太多实质性进展,对于印度版“印太”能否取得高于概念的成果也是不确定的。不过,即使只是概念,也足以对美国版“印太战略”造成较大冲击。(作者是西华师范大学印度研究中心主任)

It must be noted that any \"strategy\" or \"plan\" would require resources to make progress, otherwise it would simply be a conceptual existence. Given that india has proposed a number of international and regional co-operation programs in recent years, such as the \"monsoon \"\"spice road\" and so on, but not much substantial progress has been made, it is also uncertain whether the indian version of the indian version of the indian version can achieve a higher-than-concept outcome. However, even a mere concept is enough to have a big impact on the US version of the Indo-Pacific Strategy. (The author is Director of the Indian Research Centre, Western China Normal University)


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